Answered By: Lorna Smith
Last Updated: May 15, 2023     Views: 9

This is called secondary referencing. First, we recommend that you try to locate and read the primary source: this will make it much easier to reference and will ensure you are not taking the quote/paraphrase out of context.

Situation A: you can’t find the primary source

You only reference the secondary source in your final list. You then refer to the primary source in your in-text citation, for example:

…Smith (qtd. in Jones et al. 73) states that…

Situation B: you can find both primary and secondary source

You reference both the primary and secondary sources in your reference list and cite them independently as you would any other reference.